A material point method (MPM)-based numerical model has been used to study the effect of asperity size and orientation relative to sliding direction on the ploughing behaviour of a rigid, ellipsoidal asperity. Based on the simulated ploughing behaviour, an analytical model has been extended to calculate the ploughing depths over the wear track and compute the forces acting over the contacting surface of an ellipsoidal asperity sliding through a rigid-plastic substrate. The analytical model results have been compared with the MPM model results. The MPM model results are also validated to be in good agreement with the friction forces and ploughing depths measured from the ploughing experiments on lubricated steel sheets with ellipsoidal indenters up to certain sizes and orientations.
- Friction modelling
- Ellipsoidal asperity